英语阅读 学英语,练大发棋牌APP—棋牌大发APP官方,上大发棋牌APP—棋牌大发APP官方课堂! 注册 登录
> 轻松阅读 > 科学前沿 >  内容

饼干、啤酒或牛肉:哪种最需要水?

所属教程:科学前沿

浏览:

qinting

2019年10月08日

手机版
扫描二维码方便学习和分享
Our diets can have a big environmental impact. The greenhouse gas emissions involved in producing and transporting various foods has been well researched, but have you ever thought about the water-scarcity impacts of producing your favourite foods? The answers may surprise you.

我们的饮食会对环境产生很大的影响。人们对生产和运输各种食品所涉及的温室气体排放进行了深入的研究,但你是否想过生产你最喜欢的食物会对水资源短缺产生影响?答案可能会让你吃惊。

In research recently published in the journal Nutrients, we looked at the water scarcity footprints of the diets of 9,341 adult Australians, involving more than 5,000 foods. We measured both the amount of water used to produce a food, and whether water was scarce or abundant at the location it was drawn from.

在最近发表在《营养》杂志上的一项研究中,我们观察了9341名澳大利亚成年人饮食中的缺水足迹,涉及5000多种食物。我们测量了生产食物所需的水量,以及水的来源地是稀缺还是丰富。

饼干、啤酒或牛肉:哪种最需要水?

The food system accounts for around 70 percent of global freshwater use. This means a concerted effort to minimise the water used to produce our food - while ensuring our diets remained healthy - would have a big impact in Australia, the driest inhabited continent on Earth.

粮食系统约占全球淡水使用量的70%。这意味着,在确保我们的饮食保持健康的同时,齐心协力将用于生产食物的水降至最低,这将对澳大利亚产生重大影响。澳大利亚是地球上最干燥的有人居住的大陆。

Biscuits, beer or beef: which takes the most water to produce?

饼干、啤酒或牛肉:哪种最需要水?

We found the average Australian's diet had a water-scarcity footprint of 362 litres per day. It was slightly lower for women and lower for adults over 71 years of age.

我们发现,澳大利亚人的日常饮食中,平均每天有362升的缺水足迹。女性和71岁以上的成年人略低。

A water-scarcity footprint consists of two elements: the litres of water used, multiplied by a weighting depending on whether water scarcity at the source is higher or lower than the global average.

缺水足迹包括两个要素:用水量的升数,乘以一个取决于缺水程度是高于还是低于全球平均水平的权重。

Foods with some of the highest water-scarcity footprints were almonds (3,448 litres/kg), dried apricots (3,363 litres/kg) and breakfast cereal made from puffed rice (1,464 litres/kg).

缺水足迹最高的食物有杏仁(3448升/公斤)、杏干(3363升/公斤)和膨化大米制成的早餐麦片(1464升/公斤)。

In contrast, foods with some of the smallest water-scarcity footprint included wholemeal bread (11.3 litres/kg), oats (23.4 litres/kg), and soaked chickpeas (5.9 litres/kg).

相比之下,缺水足迹最小的食物包括全麦面包(11.3升/公斤)、燕麦(23.4升/公斤)和浸泡过的鹰嘴豆(5.9升/公斤)。

饼干、啤酒或牛肉:哪种最需要水?

It may surprise you that of the 9,000 diets studied, 25 percent of the water scarcity footprint came from discretionary foods and beverages such as cakes, biscuits, sugar-sweetened drinks and alcohol. They included a glass of wine (41 litres), a single serve of potato crisps (23 litres), and a small bar of milk chocolate (21 litres).

在所研究的9000种饮食中,25%的缺水足迹来自可自由支配的食物和饮料,如蛋糕、饼干、加糖饮料和酒精。其中包括一杯葡萄酒(41升)、一份薯片(23升)和一小块牛奶巧克力(21升)。

These foods don't only add to our waistlines, but also our water-scarcity footprint. Previous studies have also shown these foods contribute around 30 percent of dietary greenhouse gas emissions in Australia.

这些食物不仅增加了我们的腰围,还增加了我们的缺水足迹。先前的研究也表明,这些食物在澳大利亚的饮食中造成了大约30%的温室气体排放。

The second highest food group in terms of contributing to water-scarcity was fruit, at 19 percent. This includes whole fruit and fresh (not sugar-sweetened) juices. It should be remembered that fruit is an essential part of a healthy diet, and generally Australians need to consume more fruit to meet recommendations.

在造成缺水足迹方面排名第二的食物是水果,占19%。包括整个水果和新鲜(不加糖的)果汁。你要记住,水果是健康饮食的重要组成部分,一般澳大利亚人需要摄入更多的水果来满足建议。

Dairy products and alternatives (including non-dairy beverages made from soy, rice and nuts) came in third and bread and cereals ranked fourth.

乳制品和替代品(包括由大豆、大米和坚果制成的非乳饮料)排名第三,面包和谷类食品排名第四。

The consumption of red meat - beef and lamb - contributed only 3.7 percent of the total dietary water-scarcity footprint. These results suggest that eating fresh meat is less important to water scarcity than most other food groups, even cereals.

食用红肉(牛肉和羊肉)只占总膳食缺水足迹的3.7%。这些结果表明,吃新鲜肉对缺水的重要性比大多数其他食物组都要小,即使是谷类食物。

Not surprisingly, cutting out discretionary foods would be number one priority if you wanted to lower the water footprint of the food you eat, as well as the greenhouse gas emissions of production.

毫不奇怪,如果你想降低食物的水足迹以及生产过程中的温室气体排放,那么减少可自由支配的食物将是首要任务。

Over-consumption of discretionary foods is also closely linked to weight gain and obesity. Eating a variety of healthy foods, according to energy needs, is a helpful motto.

过量食用非必需食品也与体重增加和肥胖密切相关。根据能量需要,吃各种健康食品是一个有益的座右铭。


内容来自 大发棋牌APP—棋牌大发APP官方课堂网:http://nhvo.cn/show-9944-457051-1.html
用手机学英语,请加大发棋牌APP—棋牌大发APP官方课堂
微信公众号:tingclass123
用户搜索

疯狂英语 英语语法 新概念英语 走遍美国 四级大发棋牌APP—棋牌大发APP官方 英语音标 英语入门 发音 美语 四级 新东方 七年级 赖世雄 zero是什么意思

  • 频道推荐
  • |
  • 全站推荐
  • 广播大发棋牌APP—棋牌大发APP官方
  • |
  • 推荐下载
  • 网站推荐