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为什么有些国家在对待疫苗态度上出现逆转?

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2019年09月11日

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Why are some countries making a vaccine U-turn?
为什么有些国家在对待疫苗态度上出现逆转?
More than a century before Facebook, anti-vaccination campaigners had another method for spreading their message -- an eye-catching march through town with tiny children's coffins emblazoned with the words: "Another victim of vaccination."
早在脸书出现一个多世纪之前,反疫苗运动人士就有了传播他们信息的另一种方式——小镇里一场引人注目的游行,孩子们的棺材上刻着“又一个接种疫苗的受害者”。
The year was 1885, and smallpox vaccinations were compulsory in the UK -- reportedly inciting 100,000 people to demonstrate in the city of Leicester, England, one sunny March day.
那是1885年,在英国,天花疫苗是强制性的——据报道,在3月的一个阳光明媚的日子里,英国莱斯特市有10万人参加了游行示威。
为什么有些国家在对待疫苗态度上出现逆转?
"Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective ways of avoiding disease -- it currently prevents 2-3 million deaths a year, and a further 1.5 million could be avoided if global coverage of vaccinations improved," WHO said.
世卫组织说:“疫苗接种是最具成本效益的避免疾病的方法之一,目前每年可预防200万至300万人死亡,如果全球疫苗接种覆盖率提高,还可避免150万人死亡。”
Italy's vaccination U-turn
意大利对疫苗态度的逆转

Last August, Italy's populist government shocked the scientific and medical community after it removed mandatory vaccination for schoolchildren.
去年8月,意大利民粹主义政府取消了针对学童的强制性疫苗接种,震惊了科学界和医学界。
The ANSA news agency reported that League leader and Interior Minister Matteo Salvini said in June 2018 the 10 obligatory vaccinations -- which include measles, tetanus and polio -- were "useless , if not harmful."
据意大利安莎通讯社报道,联盟领导人兼内政部长马泰奥·萨尔维尼在2018年6月表示,包括麻疹、破伤风和小儿麻痹症在内的10种强制性疫苗“就算没有害处,但也毫无用处。”
The law was first introduced by the Democratic Party a month earlier, amid an ongoing outbreak of measles that saw 5,004 cases reported in 2017 -- the second-highest figure in Europe after Romania -- according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.
根据欧洲疾病预防和控制中心的数据,这项法律是民主党在一个月前首次推出的,当时正值疫情爆发,2017年报告了5004例病例-这是仅次于罗马尼亚的欧洲第二高数字。
Italy accounted for 34% of all measles cases reported by countries in the European Economic Area, the center said.
该中心说,在欧洲经济区国家报告的所有麻疹病例中,意大利占34%。
Debunked 'science'
揭穿“科学”

Experts believe that the most modern anti-vaccination movement was reinvigorated by a paper published in 1998 in the respected Lancet journal by former British doctor and researcher Andrew Wakefield. It suggested a connection between the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine and the development of autism in young children.
专家们认为,最现代的反疫苗运动是由前英国医生兼研究员安德鲁·韦克菲尔德于1998年在著名的《柳叶刀》杂志上发表的一篇论文所引发的。它表明麻疹、腮腺炎和风疹疫苗与儿童自闭症的发展之间存在联系。
The claims have since been debunked, and the Lancet retracted the article 12 years later -- its editor called it "utterly false." But the repercussions had already rocked previously vaccine-wary communities on both sides of the Atlantic.
这些说法后来被揭穿,12年后,《柳叶刀》撤回了这篇文章,其编辑称其“完全错误”。但其影响力已经撼动了大西洋两岸此前对疫苗持谨慎态度的社区。
为什么有些国家在对待疫苗态度上出现逆转?
The amplification of a message
信息的放大

The rise -- and diversification -- of social media platforms has catapulted anti-vaccination rhetoric into the mainstream.
社交媒体平台的兴起和多样化,使反疫苗言论迅速成为主流。
David R. Curry, executive director of the Center for Vaccine Ethics and Policy, told CNN that vaccine hesitancy, or anti-vaccine initiatives, have been increasingly able to use no cost and highly effective social media platforms to spread their message.
疫苗伦理与政策中心执行主任大卫·R·库里告诉CNN,对待疫苗的犹豫不决,或反疫苗举动,已经越来越能够利用免费和高效的社交媒体平台来传播他们的信息。
"The challenges we see is that we do not have an effective properly resourced set of counter measures to address that threat and we see that as a major problem," he added.
他说:“我们面临的挑战是,我们没有一套有效的、资源充足的应对措施来应对这一威胁,我们认为这是一个重大问题。”
Now, critics are calling on tech companies such as Facebook, YouTube and Google to take more responsibility of the public health disruptions occurring on their platforms, arguing that social media can't willfully ignore taking meaningful responsibility for the content on their sites.
现在,批评人士呼吁脸书、YouTube和谷歌等科技公司对其平台上发生的破坏公共健康的问题承担更多责任,他们认为,社交媒体不能故意忽视对其网站内容承担有意义的责任。
 
 

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